The seminar examined eight cities. The cities represent unique models of urban development, growth, and organization, with each exhibiting different qualities of the contemporary city. The selection allowed for each team to identify and visualize multiple types of urban formation. By means of a rigorous and iterative mapping process, students developed a comprehensive series of maps that investigated the multiple layers of infrastructure that define ecologies. The students then developed an ‘Intuitive Map; and finally, a physical ‘map’, derived from a critique of the ‘certainty’ of traditional cartography.